fleshy covering to the nostrils, and the arched, rounded wing, and great scratching
claws, it was easy to imagine some distant kind of relationship between these birds
and those of the Gallinaceous order. I was informed that the Turco makes its
nest at the bottom of a deep burrow which it excavates in the ground.
3 . P t e r o p t o c h o s a l b ic o l l i s . K i t t l
PtcioptoclioB albicollis. K it t l Mem. do I’Acad. Petersb. 1. pi. iii. Vogel von Chill; p. 8. pi. m.
Megalonyx incdius. Less. 111. Zool. pi. Ix.
Megalonyx albicollis. L/Orb. and Lafr. Mag. do Zool. (1636,) Aves, p. 15.
Leptonyx albicollis. D'Orb. Voy. de I'Amet. Mer. Av. p. 196, pi. viii. f. 2.
Tliis species is called by the Chilenos “ Tapacolo,” or cover your posteriors.
Tlie name is well applied, as the Tapacolo generally carries its short tail more
than erect, that is, inclined backward and toward the head. It is extremely
common in central Cl.lie; and in the same manner as tlie Turco replaces the
Barking-bird of the southern forest-land, so does the Tapacolo replace a fourth
species (P . rubecula), whicli is an inhabitant of the same forests. The Tapacolo
frequents hedge-rows, and the hushes which are scattered at a considerable elevation
over the sterile hills, where scarcely another bird can exist : hence it plays
a conspicuous part in the ornithology of Chile. In its manner of feeding, and
quickly Itopping out of a thicket and back again, in its desire of concealment, unwillingness
to take flight, and nidification, it manifests a close resemblance with
the P . megapodius; its appearance is not, however, so strange, and (as if in consequence)
it exposes itself more readily to view. The Tapacolo is very crafty ;
when frightened by any person, it will remain motionless at the bottom of a husli,
and will then, after a little wliile, try with much address to crawl away on the
opposite side. It is also an active bird, and continually making a noise ; these
noises are various and strangely odd; one is like the cooing of doves, another like
the bubbling of water, and many defy all similes. Tlie country people say it
changes its cry five times in tlie year, which is according, I suppose, to some
change of season. I was told that the Tapacolo builds its nest at the bottom
of a deep burrow, like the Turco ; whereas the P . Tarnii, (as well as the P . i-u-
becula, an inhabitant of the same districts,) makes its nest amongst the sticks just
above the ground. This ditference in the nidification, of the southern and northern
species, is probably due to tlie nature of the damp forests inhabited by the former
in which a burrow could hardly be made dry. I may here observe, tliat travelling
northward from Valparaiso to Coquimbo, I met near Illapel with a bird closely
allied to the Tapacolo, but wliich, from some slight diflerence in manners, I
believed was a distinct species. The range of this supposed species, is from
between Coquimbo and Valparaiso, to at least as far north as the valley of
4 . P t e r o p t o c h o s r u b e c u l a . K ittl.
Pteroptochos rubecula, Kittl. Vog. von Chili, p. 7. pi. ii.
Megalonyx rubecula, D ’Orh. 4" Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1887, p. 16.
Mcgalonyx rufogularis, D'Orh. Lafr. Voy. de I’Araer. Mer. pi. 7, f. 2.
Leptonyx rubecula, D'Orh. SfLafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 196.
This species appears to have nearly the same range with the P . Tarnii: its
southern limit certainly extends as far as 47° south, but nortliward, wliere the
forests cease, near Concepcion, I was unable to ascertain that this bird is ever
met with, and Kittlitz has made tlie same remark. In Chiloe, where it is common,
it is called by the Indian inhabitants the “ Cheucau.” It frequents the
most gloomy and retired spots within tlie damp forests. Sometimes, although
tlie cry of the Cheucau is heard close by, a person may watch attentively and yet
in vain; at other times, if he stands motionless, the red-breasted little bird will
approach within a few feet, in the most familiar manner. It then busily hops
about the entangled mass of rotting canes and branches, with its little tail cocked
upwards. I opened the gizzard of several specimens ; it was very muscular, and
contained hard seeds, buds of plants, occasionally some insects, and vegetable
fibres mixed with small stones. .The Cheucau is held in superstitious fear by the
Cliilotans, on account of its strange and varied cries. There are three very
distinct k i n d s o n e is called “ chiduco,” and is an omen of good; another “ liui-
treu,” which is extremely unfavourable; and a third, which I have forgotten.
These words are given in imitation of its cries, and the natives are in some things
absolutely governed by them. I have already stated that I was informed by the
inhabitants that the Cheucau builds its nest amongst sticks close to the ground.
5 . P t e r o p t o c h o s p a r a d o x u s . G. R . Gray.
Troglodytes paradoxus, K it t l Vog. von Oliili, p. 12, pi. b.— Ld. Mem. de TAoad. St. Peters. 1833, i. pi. 5.
Malacoi'liynchus Cliilensis, K it t l Mom. do I’Aoad. St. Peters. ] 835, p. 527.
Leptonyx paradoxus, D'Orb. Yoy. de I’Amer. Mer. Av. p. 197.
This species differs in a small degree from all the others of the genus: its
claws are longer, tarsi shorter, and hill flattened at the top : in these, and some
other respects, it approaches to Scytalopus. I may add, that from a greater
degree of resemblance, especially in the feet, P . Tarnii and megapodius may be
ranked in one section, and P . albicollis and rubecula in another.
I procured specimens of the P . paradoxus both from Valdivia and Chiloe;
like tlie P . Tarnii and P . rubecula it is confined to the regions of forest. Its
habits are closely similar to those of the last species. I opened the gizzard of
one at Valdivia, and found it full of large seeds and the remnants of insects. In